Carolina, Oi Lam Ung 吳靄琳

Assistant Professor
Programme Director (Global Affairs)
Deputy Director of Centre for Pharmaceutical Regulatory Sciences, University of Macau

  • Regulatory science in medical and pharmaceutical products – the scientific discipline that focuses on developing new tools, standards and approaches to evaluate the quality, safety, efficacy of medical and pharmaceutical products in order to support risk-benefit analysis during regulatory decision-making process
  • Evidence base about traditional, complementary and integrative medicine – the field of study about improving the practice of evidence-based medicine in traditional, complementary and integrative medicine from the perspectives of policy, practice, education and research
  • Community health and chronic disease management – the subsection of public health that studies the strategies and initiatives which support community members maintain and improve their health, prevent the spread of infectious diseases and prepare for natural disasters
  • Social and administrative pharmacy – the field of study in pharmacy that integrates the quality use of medicines into the broader perspective involving legal, ethical, economic, political, social, communicative as well as psychological aspects and focuses on the influencing interactions among patients, medicines, caregivers, and health care systems

Research Area 1: Regulatory science in medical and pharmaceutical products 

  1. Shi J, Chen X, Lai Y, Hu H, Ung COL. Promoting the Modernization of Drug Regulatory System and Regulatory Capacity: International Experiences in Benchmarking Drug Regulatory Capacity.  China Food & Drug Administration Magazine. 2023(04). (Chinese) 時君楠,陳獻文,胡豪,吳靄琳. 推進藥品監管體系和監管能力現代化:藥品監管能力基準評估的國際經驗[J]. 中國食品藥品監管,2023(04).
  2. Shi J, Chen X, Hu H and Ung COL. Application of implementation science framework to develop and adopt regulatory science in different national regulatory authorities. Front. Public Health. 2023 May 11:1172557. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.117255.
  3. Liang Z, Hu H, Li J, Yao D, Wang Y, Ung COL. Advancing the Regulation of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Products: A Comparison of Five Regulatory Systems on Traditional Medicines with a Long History of Use. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2021 Oct 27;2021:5833945. doi: 10.1155/2021/5833945. PMID: 34745290; PMCID: PMC8566035.
  4. Yao D, Hu H, Ung COL. The development and prospect of drug and medical device regulation in Macao Special Administration Region.  China Food & Drug Administration Magazine. 2021(12):16-25. (Chinese)姚東寧,胡豪,吳靄琳.澳門特別行政區藥品及醫療器械監管的發展與展望[J].中國食品藥品監管,2021(12):16-25.
  5. Li M, Chen S, Lai Y, Liang Z, Wang J, Shi J, Lin H, Yao D, Hu H, Ung COL. Integrating Real-World Evidence in the Regulatory Decision-Making Process: A Systematic Analysis of Experiences in the US, EU, and China Using a Logic Model. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 May 31;8:669509. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.669509. PMID: 34136505; PMCID: PMC8200400.
  6. Liang Z, Lai Y, Li M, Shi J, Lei CI, Hu H, Ung COL. Applying regulatory science in traditional Chinese medicines for improving public safety and facilitating innovation in China: a scoping review and regulatory implications. Chin Med. 2021 Feb 16;16(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00433-2. PMID: 33593397; PMCID: PMC7884970.
  7. Cheong ST, Li J, Ung COL, Tang D, Hu H. Building an innovation system of medical devices in China: Drivers, barriers, and strategies for sustainability. SAGE Open Med. 2020 Jul 20;8:2050312120938218. doi: 10.1177/2050312120938218. PMID: 32733676; PMCID: PMC7372622.
  8. Shi J, Liang Z, Lai Y, Wang J, Lin H, Li M, Hu H, Ung COL. Developing and adopting regulatory science: experiences of drug regulatory authorities in China, United States, European Union, and Japan.  China Food & Drug Administration Magazine. 2020(05):38-55. (Chinese) 時君楠,梁鉆姬,賴云鋒,胡豪,吳靄琳. 發展和應用監管科學:中國、美國、歐盟和日本的藥品監管機構的經驗[J]. 中國食品藥品監管,2020(05):38-55.
  9. Li M, Hu H, Ung COL. Big Data and Pharmacovigilance: Recent Developments and Applications. Chinese Journal of Pharmacovigilance. 2020: 17(5), 311-314. (Chinese) 李蒙,胡豪,吳靄琳. 大數據在藥物警戒中的應用研究進展[J]. 中國藥物警戒,2020,17(05):311-314+320.
  10. Ung COL. Should Medical Devices Be Regulated as Rigorously as Drugs? Can J Hosp Pharm. 2019 Sep-Oct;72(5):407-409. Epub 2019 Oct 21. PMID: 31692606; PMCID: PMC6799957.
  11. Hu L, Yu Z, Yuan Q, Hu Y, Ung COL. Opportunities and Challenges of Multinational Pharmaceutical Enterprises in Transforming Pharmaceutical Market in China. Ther Innov Regul Sci. 2019 Mar;53(2):207-214. doi: 10.1177/2168479018772820. Epub 2018 May 28. PMID: 29807464.
  12. Jiang R, Sun Y, Ung COL, Dong X, Kong X, Hu Y, Shao R. Research and development of mAb drugs in China: a look from policy perspectives. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019;15(11):2695-2705. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1605809. Epub 2019 May 22. PMID: 31116629; PMCID: PMC6930061.
  13. Lin AX, Chan G, Hu Y, Ouyang D, Ung COL, Shi L, Hu H. Internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine: current international market, internationalization challenges and prospective suggestions. Chin Med. 2018 Feb 9;13:9. doi: 10.1186/s13020-018-0167-z. PMID: 29449877; PMCID: PMC5807832.
  14. Li J, Zhu J, Hu H, Harnett JE, Lei CI, Chau KY, Chan G, Ung COL. Internationalization of Traditional/Complementary Medicine products: market entry as medicine. Chin Med. 2018 Oct 11;13:50. doi: 10.1186/s13020-018-0209-6. PMID: 30337951; PMCID: PMC6182808.
  15. Ni J, Shao R, Ung COL, Cai Y. Valuation of Pharmaceutical Patents: A Comprehensive Analytical Framework Based on Technological, Commercial, and Legal Factors.  J Pharm Innov. 2015; 10: 281-285.
  16. Zhang MY, Lu JJ, Wang L, Gao ZC, Hu H, Ung COL, Wang YT. Development of monoclonal antibodies in China: overview and prospects. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:168935. doi: 10.1155/2015/168935. Epub 2015 Feb 25. PMID: 25811022; PMCID: PMC4355554.
  17. He TT, Ung COL, Hu H, Wang YT. Good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulation of herbal medicine in comparative research: China GMP, cGMP, WHO-GMP, PIC/S and EU-GMP. Eur J Integr Med. 2015; 7: 55–66.
  18. Hu YJ, Ung COL, Bian Y, Wang YT. Marketing Strategy: The Chinese Pharmaceutical Market: Dynamics and a Proposed Investment Strategy. Journal of Medical Marketing. 2007; 7(1):18-24.
  19. Jingyun Ni, Rong Shao, Carolina Oi Lam Ung, Yitao Wang, Yuanjia Hu, Yong Cai. Pharmaceutical patent valuation based on empirical models. Innovation Value Chain of Chinese Pharmaceuticals, 2017;209-220.

Research Area 2: Evidence base about traditional, complementary and integrative medicine


  1. Abd Wahab MS, Ali AA, Karuppannan M, Zulkifli MH, Maniam S, Ung COL. The use of herbal and dietary supplements for COVID-19 prevention: a survey among the public in a Malaysian suburban town. Journal of herbal medicine. 2023 Mar 22:100650. doi: 10.1016/j.hermed.2023.100650. Epub 2023 Mar 22. PMID: 36998482; PMCID: PMC10032060.
  2. Harnett JE, Ung COL. Towards defining and supporting pharmacists’ professional role associated with traditional and complementary medicines – A systematic literature review. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2022 Nov 7:S1551-7411(22)00390-4. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2022.11.001. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36404259.
  3. Harnett JE, Desselle S, Ung COL. Towards consensus: defining and supporting a professional role for pharmacists associated with tradiFburtional and complementary medicines – a protocol of implementing an international e-survey. BMJ Open. 2022 Jul 28;12(7):e061352. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061352. PMID: 35902196; PMCID: PMC9341198.
  4. Lee KA, Harnett JE, Ung COL, Chaar B. The provision of care provided by the pharmacy workforce in relation to complementary medicines in Australia. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2021 Apr;17(4):763-770. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.06.020. Epub 2020 Aug 6. PMID: 32800460.
  5. Harnett JE, Desselle SP, Hu H, Ung COL. Involving systems thinking and implementation science in pharmacists’ emerging role to facilitate the safe and appropriate use of traditional and complementary medicines. Hum Resour Health. 2020 Aug 3;18(1):55. doi: 10.1186/s12960-020-00493-9. PMID: 32746844; PMCID: PMC7397671.
  6. Lee KA, Harnett JE, Ung COL, Chaar B. Impact of Up-Scheduling Medicines on Pharmacy Personnel, Using Codeine as an Example, with Possible Adaption to Complementary Medicines: A Scoping Review. Pharmacy (Basel). 2020 Apr 15;8(2):65. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy8020065. PMID: 32326495; PMCID: PMC7357108.
  7. Yao D, Hu Y, Harnett J, Hu H, Ung COL. Community pharmacist’s perceptions and practice behaviors related to traditional and complementary medicines in China: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Integr Med. 2020:101225.
  8. Yao D, Hu H, Harnett JE, Ung COL. Integrating traditional Chinese medicines into professional community pharmacy practice in China – Key stakeholder perspectives. Eur J Integr Med. 2020 Feb;34:101063. doi: 10.1016/j.eujim.2020.101063. Epub 2020 Feb 5. PMID: 32288883; PMCID: PMC7102831.
  9. Harnett JE, Ung COL, Hu H, Sultani M, Desselle SP. Advancing the pharmacist’s role in promoting the appropriate and safe use of dietary supplements. Complement Ther Med. 2019 Jun;44:174-181. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2019.04.018. Epub 2019 Apr 24. PMID: 31126552.
  10. Ung COL, Harnett JE, Hu H, Desselle S, Barriers to US pharmacists adopting professional responsibilities that support the appropriate and safe use of natural products by Americans – Key stakeholders perspectives. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2019:76(13), 980-990.
  11. Zheng T, Yao D, Chen W, Hu H, Ung COL, Harnett JE. Healthcare providers’ role regarding the safe and appropriate use of herbal products by breastfeeding mothers: A systematic literature review. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2019 May;35:131-147. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2019.01.011. Epub 2019 Jan 31. PMID: 31003649.
  12. Ung COL, Harnett J, Hu H. Development of a strategic model for integrating complementary medicines into professional pharmacy practice. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2018 Jul;14(7):663-672. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.07.012. Epub 2017 Aug 3. PMID: 28784591.
  13. Song M, Ung COL, Lee VW, Hu Y, Zhao J, Li P, Hu H. Community pharmacists’ perceptions about pharmaceutical service of over-the-counter traditional Chinese medicine: a survey study in Harbin of China. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Jan 5;17(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1532-z. PMID: 28056935; PMCID: PMC5217429.
  14. Ung COL, Harnett J, Hu H. Key stakeholder perspectives on the barriers and solutions to pharmacy practice towards complementary medicines: an Australian experience. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Aug 9;17(1):394. doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1899-5. PMID: 28793918; PMCID: PMC5550952.
  15. Ung COL, Harnett J, Hu H. Community pharmacist’s responsibilities with regards to traditional medicine/complementary medicine products: A systematic literature review. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2017 Jul-Aug;13(4):686-716. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.08.001. Epub 2016 Aug 25. PMID: 27671273.
  16. Chen X, Ung COL, Hu H, Liu X, Zhao J, Hu Y, Li P, Yang Q. Community Pharmacists’ Perceptions about Pharmaceutical Care of Traditional Medicine Products: A Questionnaire-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Guangzhou, China. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:7801637. doi: 10.1155/2016/7801637. Epub 2016 Mar 15. PMID: 27066101; PMCID: PMC4811086.


  1. Chen X, Shi J, Lai Y, Xue Y, Ung COL, Hu H. Systematic analysis of randomised controlled trials of Chinese herb medicine for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH): implications for future drug development and trial design. Chin Med. 2023 May 19;18(1):58. doi: 10.1186/s13020-023-00761-5. PMID: 37208742; PMCID: PMC10199512.
  2. Wang X, Liao Q, Chen H, Gong G, Siu SWI, Chen Q, Kam H, Ung COL, Cheung KK, Rádis-Baptista G, Wong CTT, Lee SM. Toxic Peptide From Palythoa caribaeorumActing on the TRPV1 Channel Prevents Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Epilepsy in Zebrafish Larvae. Front Pharmacol. 2021 Dec 1;12:763089. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.763089. PMID: 34925021; PMCID: PMC8672801.
  3. Bian Y, Chen Y, Wang X, Cui G, Ung COL, Lu JH, Cong W, Tang B, Lee SM. Oxyphylla A ameliorates cognitive deficits and alleviates neuropathology via the Akt-GSK3β and Nrf2-Keap1-HO-1 pathways in vitroand in vivo murine models of Alzheimer’s disease. J Adv Res. 2021 Sep 8;34:1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2021.09.002. PMID: 35024177; PMCID: PMC8655137.
  4. Xue Y, Yao P, Zhao G, Wang Y, Ung COL, Hu H. Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Based Analytical Techniques for Food Safety Evaluation. eFood. 2021: 2(1): 1-12.
  5. Lan Q, Ren Z, Chen Y, Cui G, Choi IC, Ung COL, Yu HH, Lee SM. Hepatoprotective effect of Qushihuayu formula on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induced by MCD diet in rat. Chin Med. 2021 Mar 16;16(1):27. doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00434-1. PMID: 33726778; PMCID: PMC7962269.
  6. Liang Z, Chen X, Shi J, Hu H, Xue Y, Ung COL. Efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicines for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials. Chin Med. 2021 Jan 11;16(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s13020-020-00422-x. PMID: 33430929; PMCID: PMC7802307.
  7. Yang L, Chen X, Ung COL, Zhu H, Hu H, Han S. Clinical and Economic Evaluation of Salvianolate Injection for Coronary Heart Disease: A Retrospective Study Based on National Health Insurance Data in China. Front Pharmacol. 2020 Jun 18;11:887. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.00887. PMID: 32625090; PMCID: PMC7314915.
  8. Shi J, Hu H, Harnett J, Zheng X, Liang Z, Wang YT, Ung COL. An evaluation of randomized controlled trials on nutraceuticals containing traditional Chinese medicines for diabetes management: a systematic review. Chin Med. 2019 Nov 29;14:54. doi: 10.1186/s13020-019-0276-3. PMID: 31798675; PMCID: PMC6884840.
  9. Luo H, Vong CT, Chen H, Gao Y, Lyu P, Qiu L, Zhao M, Liu Q, Cheng Z, Zou J, Yao P, Gao C, Wei J, Ung COL, Wang S, Zhong Z, Wang Y. Naturally occurring anti-cancer compounds: shining from Chinese herbal medicine. Chin Med. 2019 Nov 6;14:48. doi: 10.1186/s13020-019-0270-9. PMID: 31719837; PMCID: PMC6836491.
  10. Suo S, Lai Y, Li M, Song Q, Cai J, Zhao J, Yang Q, Ung COL, Hu H. Phytochemicals, pharmacology, clinical application, patents, and products of Amomi fructus. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Sep;119:31-36. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.05.051. Epub 2018 May 24. PMID: 29802946.
  11. Lin LG, Ung COL, Feng ZL, Huang L, Hu H. Naturally Occurring Diterpenoid Dimers: Source, Biosynthesis, Chemistry and Bioactivities. Planta Med. 2016 Oct;82(15):1309-1328. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-114573. Epub 2016 Aug 19. PMID: 27542177.
  12. Ding F, Zhang Q, Ung COL, Wang Y, Han Y, Hu Y, Qi J. An analysis of chemical ingredients network of Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 6;10(2):e0116441. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116441. PMID: 25658855; PMCID: PMC431992.


Research Area 3: Community health and chronic disease management


  1. Choi UI, Pang Y, Zheng Y, Tang PK, Hu H, Ung COL. Parents’ Intention for Their Children to Receive COVID-19 Vaccine: Implications for Vaccination Programme in Macao. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2022 (accepted)
  2. Ung COL, Hu Y, Hu H, Bian Y. Investigating the intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccination in Macao: implications for vaccination strategies. BMC Infect Dis. 2022 Mar 4;22(1):218. doi: 10.1186/s12879-022-07191-y. PMID: 35246072; PMCID: PMC8894128.
  3. McCartney G, Ung COL, Pinto JF. Living with COVID-19 and Sustaining a Tourism Recovery—Adopting a Front-Line Collaborative Response between the Tourism Industry and Community Pharmacists. Tourism and Hospitality. 2022 Mar;3(1):47-68.
  4. Li J, Hu H, Liu W, Lei CI, Ung COL. Predicting Pharmacist Intention to Contribute to COVID-19 Management at the Community Level: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study. Front Public Health. 2021 Jul 22;9:653335. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.653335. PMID: 34368042; PMCID: PMC8339551.
  5. Ung COL. Community pharmacist in public health emergencies: Quick to action against the coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2020 Apr;16(4):583-586. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.02.003. Epub 2020 Feb 12. PMID: 32081569; PMCID: PMC7129623.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

  1. Li M, . for COPD patients based on electronic health records. npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine. 2023 Apr 10;33(1):16. doi: 10.1038/s41533-023-00339-6. PMID: 37037836; PMCID: PMC10086061.
  2. Lin G, Zheng J, Tang PK, Zheng Y, Hu H, Ung COL. Effectiveness of Hospital Pharmacist Interventions for COPD Patients: A Systematic Literature Review and Logic Model. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2022 Oct 25;17:2757-2788. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S383914. PMID: 36317184; PMCID: PMC9617520.
  3. Lei C, Lou CT, Io K, SiTou KI, Ip CP, U H, Pan B, Ung COL. Viral etiology among children hospitalized for acute respiratory tract infections and its association with meteorological factors and air pollutants: a time-series study (2014-2017) in Macao. BMC Infect Dis. 2022 Jul 3;22(1):588. doi: 10.1186/s12879-022-07585-y. PMID: 35786346; PMCID: PMC9250746.
  4. Lei C, Yang L, Lou CT, Yang F, SiTou KI, Hu H, Io K, Cheok KT, Pan B, Ung COL. Viral etiology and epidemiology of pediatric patients hospitalized for acute respiratory tract infections in Macao: a retrospective study from 2014 to 2017. BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 26;21(1):306. doi: 10.1186/s12879-021-05996-x. PMID: 33771128; PMCID: PMC7995389.
  5. Li M, Chen S, Zhao H, Tang C, Lai Y, Ung COL, Su J, Hu H. The short-term associations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalizations with meteorological factors and air pollutants in Southwest China: a time-series study. Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 21;11(1):12914. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-92380-z. PMID: 34155257; PMCID: PMC8217527.
  6. Li M, Cheng K, Ku K, Li J, Hu H, Ung COL. Factors Influencing the Length of Hospital Stay Among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Macao Population: A Retrospective Study of Inpatient Health Record. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2021 Jun 9;16:1677-1685. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S307164. PMID: 34135579; PMCID: PMC8200153.
  7. Hu Y, Yao D, Hu H, Ung COL. Factors Affecting Community Pharmacist’s Knowledge About Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Management in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2020 Dec 1;15:3171-3181. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S280333. PMID: 33293806; PMCID: PMC7718967.
  8. Hu Y, Yao D, Ung COL, Hu H. Promoting Community Pharmacy Practice for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Management: A Systematic Review and Logic Model. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2020 Aug 3;15:1863-1875. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S254477. PMID: 32821091; PMCID: PMC7425088.
  9. Li M, Wang F, Chen R, Liang Z, Zhou Y, Yang Y, Chen S, Ung COL, Hu H. Factors contributing to hospitalization costs for patients with COPD in China: a retrospective analysis of medical record data. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2018 Oct 12;13:3349-3357. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S175143. PMID: 30349238; PMCID: PMC6190824.

Pregnant and breastfeeding population

  1. Zheng T, Chen W, Hu H, Wang Y, Harnett JE, Ung COL. The prevalence, perceptions and behaviors associated with traditional/complementary medicine use by breastfeeding women living in Macau: a cross-sectional survey study. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020 Apr 21;20(1):122. doi: 10.1186/s12906-020-02921-8. PMID: 32316951; PMCID: PMC7175520.
  2. Zhang J, Ung COL, Guan X, Shi L. Safety of medication use during pregnancy in mainland China: based on a national health insurance database in 2015. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Dec 3;19(1):459. doi: 10.1186/s12884-019-2622-y. PMID: 31795963; PMCID: PMC6892234.
  3. Zhang J, Ung COL, Wagner AK, Guan X, Shi L. Medication Use During Pregnancy in Mainland China: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a National Health Insurance Database. Clin Epidemiol. 2019 Dec 10;11:1057-1065. doi: 10.2147/CLEP.S230589. PMID: 31849536; PMCID: PMC6911329.
  4. Tang D, Li M, Ung COL, Tang C, Hu H. Exploratory study on development challenges of maternal and child healthcare institutions in China: a qualitative study combining interviews and focus groups. BMJ Open. 2019 Jun 20;9(6):e028789. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028789. PMID: 31227539; PMCID: PMC6596970.

Liver disorder

  1. Zou H, Lei Q, Yan X, Lai Y, Ung COL, Hu H. Clinical Outcomes Associated with Monotherapy and Combination Therapy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors as First-Line Treatment for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Real-World Practice: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Dec 30;15(1):260. doi: 10.3390/cancers15010260. PMID: 36612256; PMCID: PMC9818755.
  2. Zou H, Li M, Lei Q, Luo Z, Xue Y, Yao D, Lai Y, Ung COL, Hu H. Economic Burden and Quality of Life of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Greater China: A Systematic Review. Front Public Health. 2022 Apr 21;10:801981. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.801981. PMID: 35530735; PMCID: PMC9068962.
  3. Lei Q, Yan X, Zou H, Jiang Y, Lai Y, Ung COL, Hu H. Efficacy and safety of monotherapy and combination therapy of immune checkpoint inhibitors as first-line treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review, meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. Discov Oncol. 2022 Sep 28;13(1):95. doi: 10.1007/s12672-022-00559-1. PMID: 36171533; PMCID: PMC9519826.
  4. Zou H, Ge Y, Lei Q, Ung COL, Ruan Z, Lai Y, Yao D, Hu H. Epidemiology and disease burden of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in greater China: a systematic review. Hepatol Int. 2022 Feb;16(1):27-37. doi: 10.1007/s12072-021-10286-4. Epub 2022 Jan 31. PMID: 35098442.

Other diseases/patient subgroups

  1. Liu L, Ruan Z, Ung COL, Zhang Y, Shen Y, Han S, Jia R, Qiao J, Hu H, Guo L. Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness of Subcutaneous Once-Weekly Semaglutide Versus Polyethylene Glycol Loxenatide for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in China. Diabetes Therapy. 2023 Jan;14(1):93-107. doi: 10.1007/s13300-022-01336-7. Epub 2022 Nov 22. PMID: 36414806; PMCID: PMC9880095.
  2. Ruan Z, Jiang Y, Shi H, Jia R, Ung COL, Hu H. Real-world clinical effectiveness of once-weekly semaglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic literature review. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology. 2023 Feb 1;16(2):161-76. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2023.2174099. Epub 2023 Feb 2. PMID: 36706368.
  3. Yan X, Zou H, Lai Y, Ung COL, Hu H. Efficacy and Safety of First-Line Targeted Treatment and Immunotherapy for Patients with Biliary Tract Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Dec 21;15(1):39. doi: 10.3390/cancers15010039. PMID: 36612035; PMCID: PMC9817514.
  4. Lin Q, Xue Y, Zou H, Ruan Z, Ung COL, Hu H. Efficacy and safety of liraglutide for obesity and people who are overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2022 Oct 5:1-9. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2022.2130760. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36180402.
  5. Ruan Z, Ung COL, Shen Y, Zhang Y, Wang W, Luo J, Zou H, Xue Y, Wang Y, Hu H, Guo L. Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Once-Weekly Semaglutide versus Dulaglutide in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Inadequate Glycemic Control in China. Diabetes Ther. 2022 Aug 8. doi: 10.1007/s13300-022-01301-4. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35934763.
  6. Cai Y, Ge Y, Ung COL, Li F, Wang J, Xia C, Hu H. Treatment patterns and outcomes in children with infantile hemangiomas: A retrospective observational analysis. SAGE Open Med. 2021 Nov 23;9:20503121211056844. doi: 10.1177/20503121211056844. PMID: 34938569; PMCID: PMC8685728.
  7. Song Y, Bian Y, Petzold M, Ung COL. Prevalence and trend of major transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors in Western China, 2005 through 2010. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 8;9(4):e94528. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094528. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2015;10(2):e0118426. PMID: 24714490; PMCID: PMC3979838.
  8. Pang NI, Bie R, Ung COL, Hu H. Development and Validation of a Logic Model for Utilization of Nutrition Support among Patients with Cancer. Biomed Res Int. 2020 Jun 24;2020:4513719. doi: 10.1155/2020/4513719. PMID: 32685485; PMCID: PMC7334779.
  9. Wu AL (Ung COL)Li LHu H. Rate of hypoglycemic events in type 2 diabetes patients using basal insulin analogues: a real world analysis of four grade Ⅲ class A hospitals in China. Chinese Journal of Diabetes. 2019;27(5):331-336. (Chinese) 吳靄琳,李蘭婷,胡豪. 使用基礎胰島素類似物治療2型糖尿病患者低血糖發生率的研究:基于中國4家三級甲等醫院的真實數據[J]. 中國糖尿病雜志,2019,27(05):331-336.


Research Area 4: Social and administrative pharmacy

Pharmacy practice

  1. Lei KC, Loi CI, Cen Z, Li J, Liang Z, Hu H, Chan TF, Ung COL. Adopting an electronic medication administration system in long-term care facilities: a key stakeholder interview study in Macao. Inform Health Soc Care. 2023 Jan 17:1-15. doi: 10.1080/17538157.2023.2165084. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36650719.
  2. Cen ZF, Tang PK, Hu H, Cavaco AC, Zeng L, Lei SL, Ung COL. Systematic literature review of adopting eHealth in pharmaceutical care during COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations for strengthening pharmacy services. BMJ Open. 2022 Nov 23;12(11):e066246. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-066246. PMID: 36418133.
  3. Xi X, Huang Y, Lu Q, Ung COL, Hu H. Community pharmacists’ opinions and practice of pharmaceutical care at chain pharmacy and independent pharmacy in China. Int J Clin Pharm. 2019 Apr;41(2):478-487. doi: 10.1007/s11096-019-00802-w. Epub 2019 Mar 12. PMID: 30864081.
  4. Chen H, Ung COL, Chi P, Wu J, Tang D, Hu H. Consumers’ Perceptions About Pharmaceutical Care Provided by Community Pharmacists in China in Relation to Over-the-Counter Drugs: A Qualitative Study. Inquiry. 2018 Jan-Dec;55:46958018793292. doi: 10.1177/0046958018793292. PMID: 30095016; PMCID: PMC6088464.
  5. Ung COL, Chao CK, Hu YJ, Zhao J, Li P, Wang YT, Hu H. Community pharmacists’ understanding, attitudes, practice and perceived barriers related to providing pharmaceutical care: A questionnaire-based survey in Macao. Trop J Pharm Res. 2016; 15: 847-854.
  6. Song M, Ung COL, Hu H, Wang Y. Community pharmacists’ perceptions about pharmaceutical care of OTC western medicine: a survey in Harbin of China. Int J Clin Pharm. 2015 Dec;37(6):1014-20. doi: 10.1007/s11096-015-0176-2. Epub 2015 Aug 19. PMID: 26286338.
  7. IO UM, Hu H, Ung COL. Physicians’ and pharmacists’ experience and expectations of the roles of pharmacists: Insights into hospital setting in Macao. Trop J Pharm Res. 2013; 12: 1077-1085.



  1. Huang C, Ung COL, Wushouer H, Bai L, Huang T, Li X, Guan X, Shi L. Health technology assessment-informed pricing negotiation in China: higher negotiated price for more effective targeted anticancer medicines? Health Res Policy Syst. 2022 Jan 3;20(1):3. doi: 10.1186/s12961-021-00810-1. PMID: 34980159; PMCID: PMC8722031.
  2. Lai Y, Wang R, Li W, Zhu H, Fei S, Shi H, Lu N, Ung COL, Hu H, Han S. Clinical and economic analysis of Gastrodin injection for dizziness or vertigo: a retrospective cohort study based on electronic health records in China. Chin Med. 2022 Jan 4;17(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00561-9. PMID: 34983603; PMCID: PMC8725493.
  3. Ruan Z, Zou H, Lei Q, Ung COL, Shi H, Hu H. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic literature review. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2022 Feb 18:1-20. doi: 10.1080/14737167.2022.2042255. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35152812.
  4. Luo Z, Ruan Z, Yao D, Ung COL, Lai Y, Hu H. Budget Impact Analysis of Diabetes Drugs: A Systematic Literature Review. Front Public Health. 2021 Nov 19;9:765999. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.765999. PMID: 34869180; PMCID: PMC8639520.
  5. Huang C, Ung COL, Wushouer H, Xu Z, Zhang Y, Guan X, Shi L. The impact of the provincial reimbursement scheme on the use of targeted anticancer medications in Zhejiang, China: a controlled interrupted time-series analysis. Journal of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2021. 30(7): 590黃聰,吳靄琳,海沙爾江吾守爾,徐子悅,張逸晨,管曉東,史錄文.中國浙江省級醫保報銷對于靶向抗腫瘤藥使用的影響:一項帶對照的間斷時間序列分析(英文)[J].Journal of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences,2021,30(07):590-597.
  6. Shi H, Chen X, Liu X, Zhu H, Yu F, Ung COL, Chan WS, Hu H, Han S. National drug utilization trend of analgesics in China: an analysis of procurement data at 793 public hospitals from 2013 to 2018. J Pharm Policy Pract. 2021 May 25;14(1):45. doi: 10.1186/s40545-021-00325-8. PMID: 34034830; PMCID: PMC8147037.
  7. Huang C, Ung COL, Wushouer H, Bai L, Li X, Guan X, Shi L. Trends of Negotiated Targeted Anticancer Medicines Use in China: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2021 Jun 9. doi: 10.34172/ijhpm.2021.47. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34273922.
  8. Chen X, Yang L, Liu X, Zhu H, Yu F, Ung COL, Hu H, Chan W, Shi H, Han S. Drug Utilization for Pain Management during Perioperative Period of Total Knee Arthroplasty in China: A Retrospective Research Using Real-World Data. Medicina (Kaunas). 2021 May 6;57(5):451. doi: 10.3390/medicina57050451. PMID: 34066351; PMCID: PMC8148133.
  9. Shi H, Guo W, Zhu H, Li M, Ung COL, Hu H, Han S. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Xiyanping Injection (Andrographolide Sulfonate) for Treatment of Adult Community Acquired Pneumonia: A Retrospective, Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Mar 18;2019:4510591. doi: 10.1155/2019/4510591. PMID: 31011357; PMCID: PMC6442483.
  10. Dong P, Hu H, Guan X, Ung COL, Shi L, Han S, Yu S. Cost-consequence analysis of salvianolate injection for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Chin Med. 2018 Jun 14;13:28. doi: 10.1186/s13020-018-0185-x. PMID: 29946348; PMCID: PMC6000959.

Pharmaceutical and health systems

  1. Zheng Y, Tang PK, Lin G, Liu J, Hu H, Wu AM, Ung COL. Burnout among healthcare providers: Its prevalence and association with anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in Macao, China. Plos one. 2023 Mar 16;18(3):e0283239. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0283239. PMID: 36928867; PMCID: PMC10019613.
  2. Cen Z, Li iJ, Hu H, Leo KC, Loi, CI, Liang Z, Chan TF, Ung COL. Exploring the implementation of an outreach specialist program for nursing home residents in Macao: a multisite, qualitative study. Frontiers in Public Health. 2022 Sep 29;10:950704. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.950704. PMID: 36249183; PMCID: PMC9558699.
  3. Lai Y, Chen S, Li M, Ung COL, Hu H. Policy Interventions, Development Trends, and Service Innovations of Internet Hospitals in China: Documentary Analysis and Qualitative Interview Study. J Med Internet Res. 2021 Jul 20;23(7):e22330. doi: 10.2196/22330. PMID: 34283025; PMCID: PMC8335616.
  4. Zhang W, Ung COL, Lin G, Liu J, Li W, Hu H, Xi X. Factors Contributing to Patients’ Preferences for Primary Health Care Institutions in China: A Qualitative Study. Front Public Health. 2020 Aug 18;8:414. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00414. PMID: 33014959; PMCID: PMC7461976.
  5. Xi X, Lu Q, Lu M, Xu A, Hu H, Ung COL. Evaluation of the association between presenteeism and perceived availability of social support among hospital doctors in Zhejiang, China. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 Jul 2;20(1):609. doi: 10.1186/s12913-020-05438-5. PMID: 32616033; PMCID: PMC7331165.
  6. Xi X, Lu Q, Wo T, Pei P, Lin G, Hu H, Ung COL. Doctor’s presenteeism and its relationship with anxiety and depression: a cross-sectional survey study in China. BMJ Open. 2019 Jul 30;9(7):e028844. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028844. PMID: 31366652; PMCID: PMC6677964.
  7. Chen S, Bie R, Lai Y, Shi H, Ung COL, Hu H. Trends and Development in Enteral Nutrition Application for Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: A Scientometric Research Study (1996-2018). Front Pharmacol. 2019 Mar 20;10:246. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00246. PMID: 30949050; PMCID: PMC6436481.
  8. Song Q, Ung COL, Tang D, Hu H. The Use of Microblog “Weibo” by Chinese Patent Medicine Companies in China. Ther Innov Regul Sci. 2019 Jul;53(4):490-496. doi: 10.1177/2168479018798799. Epub 2018 Sep 16. PMID: 30221988.
  9. Chao WC, Hu H, Ung COL, Cai Y. Benefits and challenges of electronic health record system on stakeholders: a qualitative study of outpatient physicians. J Med Syst. 2013 Aug;37(4):9960. doi: 10.1007/s10916-013-9960-5. Epub 2013 Jul 13. PMID: 23852368.
  1. Ruan Z, Ung COL, Hu H. PDG9 Economic Impact of Cardiovascular Benefit of Once-Weekly Semaglutide in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with High Cardiovascular Risk in China. Value in Health. 2021; 24, S88.
  2. Hu Y, Yao D, Ung COL, Hu H. Community pharmacists’ knowledge of and perception towards their role in the management of COPD in China. Pharmacy Education. 2020:20(3),9.
  3. Li J, Hu H, Ung COL. Predicting pharmacist intention to contributing to COVID-19 management: a cross-sectional survey study. Pharmacy Education. 2020:20(3),6.
  4. Liang Z, LAI Y, Shi J, Lin H, Wang J, Li M, Ieong LC, Hu H, Ung COL. Applying Regulatory Science to Traditional Medicines for Improving Public Safety and Facilitating Innovation: Experiences in China. Value in Health Regional Issues. 2020:22, S85
  5. Shi J, LAI Y, Liang Z, Wang J, Lin H, Li M, Ieong LC, Hu H, Ung COL. Developing and Adopting Regulatory Science: Experiences of Drug Regulatory Authorities in China, United States, European Union, and JAPAN. Value in Health Regional Issues. 2020: 22, S87.
  6. Wang J, Lin H, Lai Y, Liang Z, Shi J, Li M, Ieong LC, Hu H, Ung COL. Analysis of Medical Device Recall Reports in China from a Regulatory Science Perspective: Implications for Post-Marketing Surveillance. Value in Health Regional Issues. 2020:22, S59.
  7. Cai Y, GE Y, Ung COL, Li F, Wang J, Xia C, Hu H. Medical Cost for Children with Infantile Hemangiomas in Southern China: Investigation Based on Medical Record DATA. Value in Health Regional Issues. 2020: 22, S68-S69.
  8. Lin H, Wang J, Lai Y, Liang Z, Shi J, Li M, Ieong LC, Hu H, Ung COL. How to Promote the Application of Regulatory Science in Combination Products. Value in Health Regional Issues. 2020: 22, S59.
  9. Lei C, Yang F, Lou CT, Yang L, Tou KIS, Io K, Hu H, Ung COL. Association of viruses causing acute respiratory infections with meteorological factors and air pollutants in hospitalised children in Macao: a retrospective analysis. The Lancet. 2019;394, S85
  10. Yang F, Cheng L, Yang L, Lou CT, Si Tou KI, Io K, Cheok KT, Hu H, Ung COL. The association of acute respiratory infections with meteorological factors and air pollutants among children in Macao: a retrospective analysis based on ARDL approach. Value in Health. 2019:22, S879-S880.
  11. Yang L, Cheng L, Lou CT, Yang F, Cheok KT, Io K, Hu H, Ung COL, Pan BQ. Epidemiological and clinical features of HMPV and RSV infections among children hospitalized from acute respiratory infections in Macao: a retrospective study from 2014-2017. Value in Health. 2019:22, S878.
  12. Lai YF, Chen X, Chen S, Huang Y, Huang H, Ung COL, Hu H. Business model innovation of internet hospitals in China: a systematic review. Value in Health. 2019:22, S822.
  13. Ung COL, Harnett J, Hu H. Development of a strategic model for integrating complementary medicines into professional pharmacy practice.  Integr. Med. 2019;6, S96-S97.
  14. Desselle S, Harnett J, Sultani M, Hoh R, Saied M, Ung COL. Pharmacist’s practice related to the use of natural products in the US–What is happening now?  Integr. Med. 2019;6, S146
  15. Yao D, Harnett J, Hu H, Ung COL. Key stakeholders’ perspectives on pharmacy practice about traditional Chinese medicines in China.  Integr. Med. 2019; 6, S113.
  16. Zheng T, Harnett J, Hu H, Ung COL. The perception and use of herbal preparations by breastfeeding mothers in Macau–results of a cross-sectional survey.  Integr. Med. 2019;6, S46.
  17. Shi H, Guo WJ, Zhu H, Li M, Ung COL, Hu H, Han S. (2019). PRS65 Effect and cost of traditional Chinese medicine Xiyanping injection for treating community acquired pneumonia among adults in China. Value in Health. 2019; 22, S361-S362.
  18. Shi H, Guo WJ, Zhu H, Li M, Ung COL, Hu H, Han S. PRS65 Effect and cost of traditional Chinese medicine Xiyanping injection for treating community acquired pneumonia among adults in China. Value in Health. 2019; 22: S361.
  19. Lai Y, Chen XW, Chen SQ, Chen PH, Ung COL, Hu H. Drug utilization of patients with respiratory disease at community pharmacies in China: an analysis of leading prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Value in Health. 2019; 22, S358.
  20. Lai Y, Chen XW, Chen SQ, Chen PH, Ung COL, Hu H. Drug utilization of patients with respiratory disease at community pharmacies in China: an analysis of chemical drugs (2014-2017). Value in Health. 2019;22, S175.
  21. Suo S, Ung COL, Shi H, Chen S, Hu H. Physicians’ improvement suggestions for enteral nutrition care in China: a cross-sectional survey. Value in Health. 2018; 21, S185
  22. Lai Y, Bie R, Suo S, Shi H, Chen S, Ung COL, Hu H. Utilization of monoclonal antibody in China: a study from national market access view. Value in Health. 2018;21, S159.
  23. Chen SQ, Meng H, Lai Y, Ung COL, Hu H. Social understanding of lung function examination in China: a cross-sectional survey. Value in Health. 2018;21, S414.
  24. Ruan Z, Ung COL, Li L, Hu H. Medical Costs of Hypoglycemia in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Patients Using Basal Insulin Analogues in China: Based on Medical Record Data. Value in Health. 2018;21, S38.
  25. Ruan Z, Ung COL, Lin Y, Hu H. Rate of Hypoglycemic Events in Patients Using Basal Insulin Analogues: A Real World Analysis of four Grade III Class A Hospitals in China. Value in Health. 2018;21, S35.
  26. Suo S, Lai Y, Chen S, Shi H, Hu H, Ung COL. A Retrospective Study of the Hospital Use of Enteral Nutrition in China. Value in Health. 2018;21, S47.
  1. Ung COL, Zheng T, Yao D, Harnett J, Hu H. 2018.將補充藥物納入藥師服務範圍:澳大利亞的經驗與啟示. 中國執業藥師發展報告(2017).33-39.
  2. Hu H, Yao D, Ung COL. 2017.台灣地區藥師制度概述. 中國執業藥師發展報告(2016).p.132-136.
  3. Hu H, Yao D, Ung COL. 2017.香港藥劑師制度概述. 中國執業藥師發展報告(2016).p.127-131.
  4. Ung COL, Hu H, Yao D. 2016.ek 5@藥劑師制度概述. 中國執業藥師發展報告(2015).p.121-131.
  5. Ni JY, Zhao JR, Ung COL, Hu H, Hu Y, Wang YT. 2017. Obstacles and opportunities in Chinese pharmaceutical innovation. Innovation Value Chain of Chinese Pharmaceuticals. United States-China Intellectual Property Institute Inc.pp.9-30.
  • Editorial board member, Research in Social and Administration Pharmacy (January 2022-Present)
  • Deputy Editor, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (July 2019- Present)
  • Guest co-editor, Thematic Series, Chinese Medicine (September 2019-June 2020)
  • Ad-hoc reviewer for international peer-reviewed journals including: BMJ Global Health (IF 4.280, 2019), Chinese Medicine (IF 2.960, 2019), Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy (IF 2.844, 2019), BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies (IF 2.833, 2019), International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (IF 2.772, 2019), Journal of Thoracic Disease (IF 2.170, 2019), BMJ Open (IF 2.496, 2019), Midwifery(IF 1.88, 2018), etc.
  • Founding member and Secretary-General, Pharmaceutical Society of Macao (2009 to present)
  • Founding member and Secretary-General, Macao Society for Medicinal Administration (2019 to present)
  • Board member, Macau Pharmacology Association (2019 to present)
  • Secretary, Sino-CPLP Medical Sciences and Bioeconomy Consortium (SCMSBC) (2018 to present)
  • International Consultant, “Pharmaceutical Service Demonstration Agencies” by the China Health Promotion Foundation (2016-2019)
  • Member, Pharmaceutical Society of Australia (2002 to present)
  • Member, International Society for Chinese Medicine (2017 to present)
  • Secretary General, The Academic Staff Association, University of Macau (2018 to 2020)
  • College Affiliate, Shiu Pong College, University of Macau (2019 to present)