Ligen Lin

Ligen Lin  林理根
Assistant Professor

Academic Qualifications

  • BE, Zhejiang University
  • PhD, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, CAS
  • Postdoc associate, Baylor College of Medicine


  • BIOB114, Fundamental Chemistry
  • BIOB353, Phytochemistry
  • CMED717, Development of Drugs and Health Products
  • CMED722, Advanced Natural Products Chemistry
  • CMED810, Chinese Medicine and Drug Discovery
  • CMED821, Chemistry of Natural Medicine


Research Interests

  • Natural Products Chemistry, development of new methods in isolation, structural elucidation, modification and analysis of bioactive natural products.
  • Screening of novel lead compounds for treatment of obesity, diabetes and aging.
  • Mechanism study for diet-related metabolic disorder.

Selected Publications

Study on obesity and diabetes: (#co-first author; *corresponding author)

  1. Ma, X.-J., Lin, L.-G.#, Qin, G.-J., Lu, X, Fiorotto, M., Dixit, V.D., Sun, Y.-X. (2011). Ablations of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor exhibit differential metabolic phenotypes and thermogenic capacity during aging. PlosOne, 6(1), e16391.
  2. Lin, L.-G., Saha, P.K., Ma, X.-J., Henshaw, I.O., Shao, L.-J., Chang, B.H.J., Bura,s E.D., Tong, Q., Chan, L., McGuinness, O.P., and Sun, Y.-X. (2011) Ablation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues. Aging Cell, 10, 996-1010.
  3. Lin, L.-G., Pang, W.-J., Chen, K.-Y., Wang, F., Gengler, J., Sun, Y.-X. and Tong, Q. (2012) Adipocyte expression of PU.1 transcription factor causes insulin resistance through up-regulation of ROS production and inflammatory cytokine gene expression. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 302, E1550-E1559.
  4. Ma, X.-J., Lin, Y.-Z., Lin, L.-G., Qin, G.-J., Pereira, F.A., Haymond, M.W., Butte, N.F., Sun, Y.-X. (2012) Ablation of ghrelin receptor in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice has paradoxical effects on glucose homeostasis when compared with ablation of ghrelin in ob/ob mice. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 303, E422-E431.
  5. Pang, W.-J., Lin, L.-G., Xiong, Y., Wei, N., Wang, Y., Shen, Q.-W., Yang, G.-S. (2013) Knockdown of PU.1 as IncRNA inhibits adipogenesis through enhancing PU.1 mRNA translation Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 114, 2500-2512.
  6. Ma, X.-J., Lin, L.-G.#, Yue, J., Pradhan, G., Qiu, G.-J., Minze, L.J., Wu, H.-Z., Sheikh-Hamad, D., Smith, C.W., Sun, Y.-X. (2013) Ghrelin receptor regulates HFCS-induced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance Nutrition & Diabetes, 3 e99.
  7. Lin, L.-G., Chen, K.-Y., Khalek, W.A., Ward, J.L., Yang, H., Chantal, B., Wrutniak-Cabello, C., Tong, Q. (2014) Regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and muscle mass by SIRT3 Plos One, 9(1), e85636.
  8. Lin, L.-G., Nuotio-Antar, A. M., Ma, X.-J., Liu, F., Fiorotto, M. L., Sun, Y.-X. (2014). Ghrelin receptor regulates appetite and satiety during aging in mice by regulating meal frequency and portion size but not total food intake, Journal of Nutrition, 144, 1349-1355.
  9. Lin L.-G., Lee J. H., Bongmba O. Y., Ma X.-J., Zhu X.-W., Sheikh-Hamad D., Sun Y.-X., (2014). The suppression of ghrelin signaling mitigates age-associated thermogenic impairment, Aging, 6(12), 1019-1032.
  10. Liu, Q.-Y., Wang, Y.-T., Lin, L.-G.*. (2015). New insights into the anti-obesity activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana, Food & Function, 6, 383-393.
  11. Lin, L.-G., Lee, J. H., Buras, E. D., Yu, K.-J., Wang, R.-T., Smith, C. W., Wu, H.-Z., Sheikh-Hamad, D., Sun, Y.-X. (2016). Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging, Aging, 8(1), 178-191.
  12. Lee, J. H., Lin, L.-G., Xu, P.-W., Saito, K., Wei, Q., Meadows, A., Bongmba, O., Pradhan, G., Zheng, H., Xu, Y., Sun, Y.-X. (2016). Neuronal deletion of ghrelin receptor almost completely prevents diet-induced obesity, Diabetes, 65, 2169-2178.
  13. Wu, C.-S., Bongmba, O. Y. N., Yue, J., Lee, J. H., Lin L.-G., Saito, K., Pradhan, G., Li, D.-P., Pan, H.-L., Xu, A., Guo, S.-D., Xu, Y., Sun, Y.-X. (2017). Suppression of GHS-R in AgRP neurons mitigates diet-induced obesity by activating thermogenesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18, 832.
  14. Ma, X.-J., Lin L.-G.#, Yue, J., Wu, C.-S., Guo, C. A., Wang, R.-T., Yu, K.-J., Devaraj, S., Murano, P., Chen, Z., Sun, Y.-X. (2017). Suppression of ghrelin exacerbates HFCS-induced adiposity and insulin resistance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18, 1302.
  15. Liu, J.-X., Li, D., Zhang, T., Tong, Q., Ye, R. D., Lin L.-G.* (2017). SIRT3 protects hepatocytes from oxidative injury by enhancing ROS scavenging and mitochondrial integrity. Cell Death and Disease 8, e3158.

Study on natural products chemistry:

  1. Lin, L.-G.; Zhong, Q.-X.; Cheng, T.-Y.; Tang, C.-P.; Ke, C.-Q.; Lin, G.; Ye, Y. (2006). Stemoninines from the Roots of Stemona tuberosa Journal of Natural Products, 69, 1051-1054.
  2. Yang, X.-Z.; Lin, L.-G.; Tang, C.-P.; Liu, Y.-Q.; Ye, Y. (2007). Non-alkaloid Constituents from Stemona japonica, Helv. Chim. Acta. 90, 318-325.
  3. Lin, L.-G.; Tang, C.-P.; Xu, R.-S.; Ye, Y. (2007). Cochinchistemonine, an unprecedented skeleton alkaloid from Stemona cochinchinensis, Tetrahedron Letters. 48, 1559-1561.
  4. Lin, L.-G.; Pham, H.-D.; Tang, C.-P.; Ke, C.-Q.; Yang, X.-Z.; Ye, Y. (2007). Alkaloids from the roots of Stemona cochinchinensis, Helv. Chim. Acta. 90, 2167-2175.
  5. Lin, L.-G.; Yang, X.-Z.; Tang, C.-P.; Ke, C.-Q.; Zhang, J.-B.; Ye, Y. (2008). Antibacterial stilbenoids from the roots of Stemona tuberosa, Phytochemistry. 69, 457-463.
  6. Lin, L.-G.; Tang, C.-P.; Ke, C.-Q.; Zhang, Y.; Ye, Y. (2008). Terpenoids from stems of Cipadessa baccifera, Journal of Natural Products. 71, 628-632.
  7. Lin, L.-G.; Cheng, T.-Y.; Tang, C.-P.; Ke, C.-Q.; Rudd, J. A.; Lin, G.; Ye, Y. (2008). Anti-tussive alkaloids from roots of Stemona tuberosa, Journal of Natural Products. 71, 1107-1110.
  8. Lin, L.-G.; Xie, H.; Li, H.-L.; Tong, L.-J.; Tang, C.-P.; Ke, C.-Q.; Lin, L.-P.; Geng, M.-Y.; Jiang, H.-L.; Zhao, W.-M.; Ding, J.; Ye, Y. (2008). Naturally occurring homoisoflavonoids function as potent protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors by c-Src-based high-throughput screening, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 71, 628-632.
  9. Lin, L.-G., Leung, H. P.-H.; Zhu, J.-Y.; Tang, C.-P.; Ke, C.-Q.; Rudd, J. A.; Lin, G.; Ye, Y. (2008). Croomine- and tuberostemonine-type alkaloids from roots of Stemona tuberosa and their antitussive activity, Tetrahedron. 64, 10155-10161.
  10. Peng. S.-Y., Shi, T., Wang, Y.-Z., Lin, L-G., Yang, Y.-M., Jiang, H.-L., and Ye, Y. (2009). Rapid structural determination of alkaloids in a crude extract of Stemona saxorum by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 23, 3621–3631.
  11. Lin, L.-G.*, Liu, Q.-Y., Ye, Y. (2014). Naturally occurring homoisoflavonoids and their pharmacological activities, Planta Medica, 80, 1053-1066.
  12. Lin, L.-G.*, Han, B., Wang, A.-Q., Tang, C.-P., Dien, P.-H., Ye, Y. (2014). Two new N-oxide alkaloids from Stemona cochinchinensis, Molecules, 19, 20257-20265.
  13. Xu, W., Li, T., Qiu, J.-F., Wu, S.-S., Huang, M.-Q., Lin, L.-G., Zhang, Q.-W., Chen, X.-P., Lu, J.-J. (2015). Anti-proliferative activity of terpenoids isolated from Alisma orientalis and their structure-activity relationships, Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 15, 228-235.
  14. Hu, Y.-Y., Wang S.-P., Wang, A.-Q., Lin, L.-G., Chen, M.-W., Wang, Y.-T. (2015). Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Penthorum chinense Pursh extract against t-BHP-induced liver damage in L02 cells, Molecules, 20, 6443-6453.
  15. Guo, Y.-P., Lin, L.-G.*, Wang, Y.-T. (2015). Chemistry and pharmacology of the herb pair Flos Lonicerae japonicae-Forsythiae fructus, Chinese Medicine, 10, 16.
  16. Wang, A.-Q., Lin, L.-G.*, Wang, Y.-T. (2015). Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Penthorum chinense Pursh: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review, American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 43(4), 601-620.
  17. Wang, A.-Q., Liu, Q.-Y., Ye, Y., Wang, Y.-T., Lin, L.-G.* (2015). Identification of hepatoprotective xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, guided with tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative injury in HL-7702 cells, Food & Function, 6, 3013-3021.
  18. Chen, M.-H., Chen, X.-J., Wang, M., Lin, L.-G.*, Wang, Y.-T. (2016). Ophiopogon japonicus-A phytochemical, ethnomedicinal and pharmacological review, Journal of Ethnopharmacolgy, 181, 193-213.
  19. Wang, A.-Q., Wang, S.-P., Jiang, Y., Chen, M.-W., Wang, Y.-T., Lin, L.-G.* (2016). Bio-assay guided identification of hepatoprotective polyphenols from Penthorum chinense Pursh on t-BHP induced oxidative stress injured LO2 cells, Food & Function, 7, 2074-2083.
  20. Bao, H., Zhang, L.-L., Liu, Q.-Y., Feng, L., Ye, Y., Lu, J.-J., Lin, L.-G.* (2016). Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of cassane diterpenoids from the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in cancer cells, Molecules, 21, 791.
  21. Liu, Q.-Y., Li, D., Wang, A.-Q., Dong, Z., Yin, S., Zhang, Q.-W., Ye, Y., Li, L.-C., Lin, L.-G.* (2016). Nitric oxide inhibitory xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry, 131, 115-123.
  22. Chen, S.-R., Wang, A.-Q., Lin, L.-G., Qiu, H.-C., Wang, Y.-T., Wang, Y. (2016). In vitro study on anti-hepatitis C virus activity of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. Molecules, 21, 1367.
  23. Zheng, Y.-D., Guan, X.-C., Li, D., Wang, A.-Q., Ke, C.-Q., Tang, C.-P., Lin, L.-G., Wang, Z.-L., Yao, S. (2016). Novel diterpenoids from the twigs of Podocarpus nagi. Molecules, 21, 1282.
  24. Lin, L.-G.*, Ung, O. L. C., Feng, Z.-L., Huang, L., Hu, H. (2016). Naturally occurring diterpenoid dimers: source, biosynthesis, chemistry and bioactivities. Planta Medica, 82, 1309-1328.
  25. Chen, X., Wu, Q.-S., Meng, F.-C., Tang, Z.-H., Chen, X.-P., Lin, L.-G., Chen, P., Qiang, W.-A., Wang, Y.-T., Zhang, Q.-W., Lu, J.-J. (2016) Chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester induces G1 cell cycle arrest, triggers apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion in ovarian cancer cells. Phytomedicine, 23, 1555-1565.
  26. Huang, X.-H., Tao, L.-X., Ke, C.-Q., Tang, C.-P., Zhang, H.-Y., Ye, Y., Lin, L.-G.*, Yao, S. (2017). Taxodikaloids A and B, two dimeric abietane-type diterpenoids from Taxodium ascendens possessing an oxazoline ring linkage. Organic Letters, 19, 556-559.
  27. Wu, J.-W., Tang, C.-P., Ke, C.-Q., Yao, S., Liu, H.-C., Lin L.-G.*, Ye, Y. (2017). Dicarabrol A, dicarabrone C and dipulchellin A, unique sesquiterpene lactone dimers from Carpesium abrotanoides. RSC Advances, 7, 4639-4644.
  28. Bao, H., Zhang, Q.-W., Ye, Y., Lin L.-G.* (2017). Naturally occurring furanoditerpenoids: distribution, chemistry and their pharmacological activities. Phytochemistry Review, 16, 235-270.
  29. Niu, B., Ke, C.-Q., Li, B.-H., Li, Y.-Y., Yi, Y.-J., Luo, Y.-W., Shuai, L., Yao, S., Lin L.-G., Li, J., Ye, Y. (2017). Cucurbitane glucosides from the crude extract of Siraitia grosvenorii with moderate effects on PGC-1α promoter activity. Journal of Natural Products, 80, 1428-1435.
  30. Feng, Z.-L., Zheng, L.-L., Zheng, Y.-D., Liu, Q.-Y., Liu, J.-X., Feng, L., Huang, L., Zhang, Q.-W., Lu, J.-J., Lin, L.-G.* (2017), Norditerpenoids and dinorditerpenoids from the seeds of Podocarpus nagi as cytotoxic agents and autophagy inducers. Journal of Natural Products, 80, 2110-2117.
  31. Huang, L., Li, D., Xu, Y.-S., Feng, Z.-L., Meng, F.-C., Zhang, Q.-W., Gan, L.-S., Lin L.-G.* (2017). Clausoxamine, an alkaloid possessing a 1,3-oxazine-4-one ring from the seeds of Clausena lansiu and the anti-obesity effect of lansiumamide B ASC advances 7, 46900-46905.
  32. Wang, S.-P., Wang, A.-Q., Shao, M., Lin L.-G., Li, P., Wang, Y.-T. (2017). Schisandrin B reverses doxorubicin resistance through inhibiting P-glycoprotein and promoting proteasome-mediated degradation of survivin. Scientific Reports 7, 8419.
  33. Xu, X.-H., Liu, Q.-Y., Li, T., Liu, J.-L., Chen, X., Huang, L., Qiang, W.-A., Chen, X.-P., Wang, Y.-T., Lin L.-G.*, Lu, J.-J. (2017). Garcinone E induces apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion in ovarian cancer cells. Scientific Reports 7, 10718.
  34. Meng, F.-C., Wu, Q.-S., Wang, R.-B., Li, S.-P., Lin, L.-G., Chen, P., Zhang, Q.-W. (2017). A novel strategy for quantitative analysis of major ginsenosides in panacis japonica rhizome with a standardized reference fraction. Molecules 22, 2067.
  35. Meng, F.-C., Liu, H., Huang, X.-J., Chang, Y., Ren, D., Lin, L.-G., Zeng, Q.-Q., Zhang, Q.-W. (2017). Four new norlignan glycoside isomers from the twigs of Cephalotaxus oliveri Mast. Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 28, 1686-1689.

Wang, A.-Q., Li, D., Wang, S.-P., Zhou, F.-Y., Li, P., Wang, Y.-T., Lin, L.-G.* (2018). γ-Mangostin, a xanthone from mangosteen, attenuates oxidative injury in liver via NRF2 and SIRT1 induction. Journal of Functional Foods 40, 544-553.


  1. Ye, Y., Lin, G., Lin, L-G., Anthony, J.R., Li, X.-Q., Tang, C.-P., Ke, C.-Q. Use of alkaloids compounds in preparingof medicament for treating cough. CN 200710045498.3. 2009.
  2. Ye, Y., Lin, G., Lin, L-G., Anthony, J., Li, X.-Q., Tang, C.-P., Ke, C.-Q. Total alkaloid extract, and extraction method thereof and use in preparing medicament for treating cough. CN 200710046888.2. 2009.
  3. Ye, Y., Lin, G., Lin, L-G., Anthony, J.R., Li, X.-Q., Tang, C.-P., Ke, C.-Q. The use of alkaloids in preparation of medicament for treating cough. WO 2009//030116. 2009.
  4. Lin, L-G., Lu, J.-J., Feng, Z.-L., Zhang, L.-L., Liu, Q.-Y. Norditerpenoids from Podocarpus nagi and application thereof in preparation of anti-tumor drugs. China patent, application number 2017102208690. 2017.
  5. Lin, L-G., Huang, L., Li, D. An extract from the seeds of Clausena lansium with anti-hyperglycemia, weight losing and anti-hyperlipidemia effects, and preparation method and application thereof. China patent, application number 201710909565.5, 2017.


  • Member: the Endocrine Society
  • Member: the International Society for Chinese Medicine
  • Member: the International Association of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine

Contact Details

Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences
University of Macau
Macao, China

Room: 6044, Research Building N22
Telephone: (853) 8822-8041
Fax: (853) 28841358