Carolina Ung


 Carolina Oi Lam Ung 吳靄琳
BPharm, MHealth Science (Health Informatics), PhD (Biomedical Sciences)
Lecturer (Macau Fellow), Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau
Honorary Research Fellow, Sydney School of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Australia

Academic Qualifications

  • 2017: PhD (Major: Biomedical Sciences), University of Macao, Macao
  • 2006: Diploma of Medicinal Administration, University of Macao, Macao
  • 2004: Master of Health Science (Health Informatics), The University of Sydney, Australia
  • 2001: Bachelor of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Australia


Major research Interests

  • Drug-related policy and regulatory science
  • Internationalization of traditional/complementary medicines
  • Evidence base about traditional/complementary medicines
  • Health Services and Pharmacy practice

Selected Publications (underlined – first, co-first or corresponding author)

    1. Hu Y, Yao D. Ung COL, & Hu H. Promoting community pharmacy practice for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management: a systematic review and logic model. International Journal of COPD. (accepted) (Q1)
    2. Lee KAYR, Harnett JE, UNG COL, & Chaar B. The provision of care provided by the pharmacy workforce in relation to complementary medicines in Australia. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. (accepted) (Q1)
    3. Xie R, Pang NI, Ung COL, & Hu H. Development and validation of logic model for utilization of nutrition support among patients with cancer. BioMed Research International. (accepted) (Q2)
    4. Xi X, Lu Q, Lu M, Xu A, Hu H, & Ung COL. Evaluation of the association between presenteeism and perceived availability of social support among hospital doctors in Zhejiang, China. BMC Health Services Research. 2020 (accepted) (Q1)
    5. J, Liang Z, Lai Y, Wang J, Lin H, Li M, Hu H, Ung COL. Developing and adopting regulatory science: experiences of drug regulatory authorities in China, United States, European Union, and Japan.  China Food & Drug Administration Magazine. 2020(05):38-55. (Chinese) 時君楠,梁鉆姬,賴云鋒,胡豪,吳靄琳. 發展和應用監管科學:中國、美國、歐盟和日本的藥品監管機構的經驗[J]. 中國食品藥品監管,2020(05):38-55.
    6. Yang L, Chen X, Ung COL, Zhu H, Hu H, & Han S. Clinical and economic evaluation of salvianolate injection for coronary heart disease: a retrospective study based on national health insurance data in China. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2020: 11, 887. (Q1)
    7. Li M, Hu H, Ung COL. Big Data and Pharmacovigilance: Recent Developments and Applications. Chinese Journal of Pharmacovigilance. 2020: 17(5), 311-314. (Chinese) 李蒙,胡豪,吳靄琳. 大數據在藥物警戒中的應用研究進展[J]. 中國藥物警戒,2020,17(05):311-314+320.
    8. Lee KA, Harnett JE, Ung COL, Chaar, B. Impact of Up-Scheduling Medicines on Pharmacy Personnel, Using Codeine as an Example, with Possible Adaption to Complementary Medicines: A Scoping Review. Pharmacy. 2020: 8(2), 65. (Q2)
    9. Zheng T, Chen W, Hu H, Wang Y, Harnett, J, Ung COL. The prevalence, perceptions and behaviors associated with traditional/complementary medicine use by breastfeeding women living in Macau: a cross-sectional survey study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2020: 20, 1-11. (Q1)
    10. Ung COL. Community pharmacist in public health emergencies: Quick to action against the coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2020: 16(4): 583-586. (Q1)
    11. Yao D, Hu H, Harnett J, Ung COL. Integrating traditional Chinese medicines into professional community pharmacy practice in China-Key stakeholder perspectives. Eur J Integr Med. 2020:101063. (Q2)
    12. Zhang J, Ung COL, Guan X, Shi L. Safety of medication use during pregnancy in mainland China: based on a national health insurance database in 2015. BMC Pregnancy Childb. 2019: 19(1), 459. (Q1)
    13. Zhang J, Ung COL, Wagner AK, Guan X, SHI L. Medication use during pregnancy in mainland China: a cross-sectional analysis of a national health insurance database. Clin Epidemiol. 2019:11 1057–1065. (Q1)
    14. Chi J, Hu H, Harnett J, Zheng X, Liang Z, Wang Y, Ung COL. An evaluation of randomized controlled trials on nutraceuticals containing traditional Chinese medicines for diabetes management: a systematic review. Chin Med. 2019:14(1), 54. (Q1)
    15. Luo H, Vong CT, Chen H, Gao Y, Lyu P, Qiu L, Yao P, Cao C, Wei J, Ung COL, Wang S, Zhong Z, Wang Y. Naturally occurring anti-cancer compounds: shining from Chinese herbal medicine. Chin Med. 2019; 14 (1), 48. (Q1)
    16. Xi X, Lu Q, Wo T, Per P, Lin G, Hu H, Ung COL. Doctor’s presenteeism and its relationship with anxiety and depression: a cross-sectional survey study in China. BMJ Open. 2019;9:e028844. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028844. (Q1)
    17. Ung COL. Should Medical Devices Be Regulated as Rigorously as Drugs? Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. 2019;72(5). 1-3. (Q2)
    18. Tang D, Li M, Ung COL, Tang C, Hu H. Exploratory study on development challenges of maternal and child healthcare institutions in China: a qualitative study combining interviews and focus groups. BMJ open. 2019; 9(6), e028789. (Q1)
    19. Hu LF, Yu Z, Yuan QW, Hu YJ, Ung COL. Opportunities and Challenges of Multinational Pharmaceutical Enterprises in Transforming Pharmaceutical Market in China. Ther Innov Regul Sci. 2019; 53(2): 207-214. (Q2)
    20. Harnett J, Ung COL, Hu H, Sultani M, Desselle S. Advancing the pharmacist’s role in promoting the appropriate and safe use of dietary supplements. Complement Ther Med. 2019:44:174-181. (Q1)
    21. Ung COL, Harnett JE, Hu H, Desselle S, Barriers to US pharmacists adopting professional responsibilities that support the appropriate and safe use of natural products by Americans – Key stakeholders perspectives. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2019:76(13), 980-990. (Q2)
    22. Jiang R, Sun Y, Ung COL, Dong X, Kong X Hu Y, Shao R. Research and development of mAb drugs in China: a look from policy perspectives. Hum vacc immunother. 2019; 1-11. (Q1)
    23. Shi H, Guo W, Zhu H, Li M, Ung COL, Hu H, Han, S. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Xiyanping Injection (Andrographolide Sulfonate) for Treatment of Adult Community Acquired Pneumonia: A Retrospective, Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019: 4510591. (Q1)
    24. Xi X, Huang Y, Lu Q, Ung COL, Hu H. Community pharmacists’ opinions and practice of pharmaceutical care at chain pharmacy and independent pharmacy in China. Int J Clin Pharm. 2019: 41(2), 478-487. (Q1)
    25. Wu AL (Ung COL)Li LHu H. Rate of hypoglycemic events in type 2 diabetes patients using basal insulin analogues: a real world analysis of four grade Ⅲ class A hospitals in China. Chinese Journal of Diabetes. 2019;27(5):331-336. (Chinese) 吳靄琳,李蘭婷,胡豪. 使用基礎胰島素類似物治療2型糖尿病患者低血糖發生率的研究:基于中國4家三級甲等醫院的真實數據[J]. 中國糖尿病雜志,2019,27(05):331-336.
    26. Chen S, Bie R, Lai Y, Shi H, Ung COL, Hu H. Trends and Development in Enteral Nutrition Application for Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: A Scientometric Research (1996-2018). Front Pharmacol. 2019:10:246. (Q1)
    27. Zheng T, Yao D, Chen W, Hu H, Ung COL, Harnett J. Healthcare providers’ role regarding the safe and appropriate use of herbal products by breastfeeding mothers: A systematic literature review. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2019;35:131-147. (Q1)
    28. Song Q, Ung COL, Tang D, Hu H. The Use of Microblog “Weibo” by Chinese Patent Medicine Companies in China. Ther Innov Regul Sci. 2019;53(4): 490-496. (Q2)
    29. Li M, Wang FY, Liang ZY, Zhou YM, Yang YQ, Chen SQ , Ung COL, Hu H. Factors contributing to hospitalization costs for patients with COPD in China: a retrospective analysis of medical record data. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2018:13 3349–3357. (Q1)
    30. Li JT, Zhu JF, Hu H, Harnett J, Lei CI, Chau KY, Chan G, Ung COL. Internationalization of Traditional/Complementary Medicine products: Market entry as MEDICINE. Chin Med. 2018: 13:50. (Q1)
    31. Chen H, Ung COL, Chi PL, Wu JH, Tang DS, Hu H. Consumers’ Perceptions about Pharmaceutical Care Provided by Community Pharmacists in China in Relation to Over-the-Counter Drugs: A Qualitative Study. Inquiry. 2018; 55:1-8. (Q1)
    32. Dong PX, Hu H, Guan XD, Ung COL, Shi LW, Han S, Yu SW. Cost-consequence analysis of salvianolate injection for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Chin Med. 2018; 13:28. (Q1)
    33. Suo SZ, Lai YF, Li M, Song QR, Cai J, Zhao J, Yang Q, Ung COL, Hu H. Phytochemicals, pharmacology, clinical application, patents, and products of Amomi fructus. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018; doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.05.051. (Q1)
    34. Lin AXH , Chan G , Hu YJ, Ouyang DF, Ung COL, Shi LW, Hu H. Internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine: current international market, internationalization challenges and prospective suggestions. Chin Med. 2018; 13:9. (Q1)
    35. Ung CO, Harnett J, Hu H. Development of a strategic model for integrating complementary medicines into professional pharmacy practice. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2018; 14(7):663-672. (Q1)
    36. Ni JY, Zhao JR, Ung COL, Hu YJ, Hu H, Wang YT. Obstacles and opportunities in Chinese pharmaceutical innovation. Global Health. 2017; 13:21. (Q1)
    37. Song MH, Ung COL, Lee WY, Hu YJ, Zhao J, Li P and Hu H. Community pharmacists’ perceptions about pharmaceutical service of over-the-counter traditional Chinese medicine: a survey study in Harbin of China. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17:9. (Q1)
    38. Ung COL, Harnett J, Hu H. Key stakeholder perspectives on the barriers and solutions to pharmacy practice and complementary medicines: the Australian story. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17:394. (Q1)
    39. Ung COL, Harnett J, Hu H. Community pharmacist’s responsibilities with regards to Traditional Medicine/Complementary Medicine products: A systematic literature review. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2017; 13:686–716. (Q1)
    40. Lin LG, Ung COL, Feng ZL, Huang L, Hu H. Naturally Occurring Diterpenoid Dimers: Source, Biosynthesis, Chemistry and Bioactivities. Planta Med. 2016; 82: 1309–1328. (Q1)
    41. Ung COL, Chao CK, Hu YJ, Zhao J, Li P, Wang YT, Hu H. Community pharmacists’ understanding, attitudes, practice and perceived barriers related to providing pharmaceutical care: A questionnaire-based survey in Macao. Trop J Pharm Res. 2016; 15: 847-854.(Q3)
    42. Chen X, Ung COL, Hu H, Liu X, Zhao J, Hu Y, Li P, Yang Q. Community Pharmacists’ Perceptions about Pharmaceutical Care of Traditional MedicineProducts: A Questionnaire-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Guangzhou, China. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016; 3:1-10. (Q1)
    43. Song M, Ung COL, Hu H, Wang Y. Community pharmacists’ perceptions about pharmaceutical care of OTC western medicine: a survey in Harbin of China. Int J Clin Pharm. 2015; 37:1014-20. (Q1)
    44. Ni J, Shao R, Ung COL, Cai Y. Valuation of Pharmaceutical Patents: A Comprehensive Analytical Framework Based on Technological, Commercial, and Legal Factors.  J Pharm Innov. 2015; 10: 281-285. (Q2)
    45. Zhang MY, Lu JJ, Wang L, Gao ZC, Hu H, Ung COL, Wang YT. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies in China: Overview and Prospects. Biomed Res Int. 2015; Article ID 168935. (Q2)
    46. Ding F, Zhang Q, Ung COL, Wang Y, Han Y, Hu Y, Qi J. An analysis of chemical ingredients network of Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease. PLoS One. 2015; 10(2): e0116441. (Q1)
    47. He TT, Ung COL, Hu H, Wang YT. Good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulation of herbal medicine in comparative research: China GMP, cGMP, WHO-GMP, PIC/S and EU-GMP. Eur J Integr Med. 2015; 7: 55–66. (Q2)
    48. Song Y, Bian Y, Petzold M, Ung COL. Prevalence and trend of major transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors in Western China, 2005 through 2010. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e94528. (Q1)
    49. IO UM, Hu H, Ung COL. Physicians’ and pharmacists’ experience and expectations of the roles of pharmacists: Insights into hospital setting in Macao. Trop J Pharm Res. 2013; 12: 1077-1085. (Q3)
    50. Chao WC, Hu H, Ung COL, Cai Y. Benefits and challenges of electronic health record system onstakeholders: a qualitative study of outpatient physicians. J Med Syst. 2013; 37(4):9960. (Q2)
    51. Hu YJ, Ung COL, Bian Y, Wang YT. Marketing Strategy: The Chinese Pharmaceutical Market: Dynamics and a Proposed Investment Strategy. Journal of Medical Marketing. 2007; 7(1):18-24. (Q4)

Selected conference proceedings

    1. Lei C, Yang F, Lou CT, Yang L, Tou KIS, Io K, Hu H, Ung COL. Association of viruses causing acute respiratory infections with meteorological factors and air pollutants in hospitalised children in Macao: a retrospective analysis. The Lancet. 2019;394, S85
    2. Ung COL, Harnett J, Hu H. Development of a strategic model for integrating complementary medicines into professional pharmacy practice. Adv. Integr. Med. 2019;6, S96-S97.
    3. Desselle S, Harnett J, Sultani M, Hoh R, Saied M, Ung COL. Pharmacist’s practice related to the use of natural products in the US–What is happening now? Adv. Integr. Med. 2019;6, S146
    4. Yao D, Harnett J, Hu H, Ung COL. Key stakeholders’ perspectives on pharmacy practice about traditional Chinese medicines in China. Adv. Integr. Med. 2019; 6, S113.
    5. Zheng T, Harnett J, Hu H, Ung COL. The perception and use of herbal preparations by breastfeeding mothers in Macau–results of a cross-sectional survey. Adv. Integr. Med. 2019;6, S46.
    6. Shi H, Guo WJ, Zhu H, Li M, Ung COL, Hu H, Han S. (2019). PRS65 Effect and cost of traditional Chinese medicine Xiyanping injection for treating community acquired pneumonia among adults in China. Value in Health. 2019; 22, S361-S362.
    7. Shi H, Guo WJ, Zhu H, Li M, Ung COL, Hu H, Han S. PRS65 Effect and cost of traditional Chinese medicine Xiyanping injection for treating community acquired pneumonia among adults in China. Value in Health. 2019; 22: S361.
    8. Lai Y, Chen XW, Chen SQ, Chen PH, Ung COL, Hu H. PRS48 Drug utilization of patients with respiratory disease at community pharmacies in China: an analysis of leading prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Value in Health. 2019; 22, S358.
    9. Lai Y, Chen XW, Chen SQ, Chen PH, Ung COL, Hu H. PDG74 Drug utilization of patients with respiratory disease at community pharmacies in China: an analysis of chemical drugs (2014-2017). Value in Health. 2019;22, S175.
    10. Suo S, Ung COL, Shi H, Chen S, Hu H. PHP208-Physicians’ improvement suggestions for enteral nutrition care in China: a cross-sectional survey. Value in Health. 2018; 21, S185
    11. Lai Y, Bie R, Suo S, Shi H, Chen S, Ung COL, Hu H. PHP51-Utilization of monoclonal antibody in China: a study from national market access view. Value in Health. 2018;21, S159.
    12. Chen SQ, Meng H, Lai Y, Ung COL, Hu H. PRS59-Social understanding of lung function examination in China: a cross-sectional survey. Value in Health. 2018;21, S414.
    13. Ruan Z, Ung COL, Li L, Hu H. Medical Costs of Hypoglycemia in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Patients Using Basal Insulin Analogues in China: Based on Medical Record Data. Value in Health. 2018;21, S38.
    14. Ruan Z, Ung COL, Lin Y, Hu H. Rate of Hypoglycemic Events in Patients Using Basal Insulin Analogues: A Real World Analysis of four Grade III Class A Hospitals in China. Value in Health. 2018;21, S35.
    15. Suo S, Lai Y, Chen S, Shi H, Hu H, Ung COL. A Retrospective Study of the Hospital Use of Enteral Nutrition in China. Value in Health. 2018;21, S47.

Selected book chapters

    1. Ung COL, Zheng T, Yao D, Harnett J, Hu H. 2018.將補充藥物納入藥師服務範圍:澳大利亞的經驗與啟示. 中國執業藥師發展報告(2017).33-39.
    2. Hu H, Yao D, Ung COL. 2017.台灣地區藥師制度概述. 中國執業藥師發展報告(2016).p.132-136.
    3. Hu H, Yao D, Ung COL. 2017.香港藥劑師制度概述. 中國執業藥師發展報告(2016).p.127-131.
    4. Ung COL, Hu H, Yao D. 2016.ek 5@藥劑師制度概述. 中國執業藥師發展報告(2015).p.121-131.
    5. Ni JY, Zhao JR, Ung COL, Hu H, Hu Y, Wang YT. 2017. Obstacles and opportunities in Chinese pharmaceutical innovation. Innovation Value Chain of Chinese Pharmaceuticals. United States-China Intellectual Property Institute Inc.pp.9-30.

Professional Affiliations

    • Registered pharmacist, Macau (2005 to present)
    • Registered pharmacist, Australia (2002 to present)
    • Honorary Research Fellow to pursue collaborative research work in the Sydney School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney (2017 to present)
    • Fellow, International Research Leadership Program, Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine (since 2020)
    • Fellow Candidate, Australasian College of Health Service Management (2019 to present)
    • Fellow Candidate, Hong Kong College of Health Service Executives (2019 to present)

Professional Contributions

    • Deputy Editor, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (July 2019- Present)
    • Guest co-editor, Thematic Series, Chinese Medicine (September 2019-June 2020)
    • Ad-hoc reviewer for international peer-reviewed journals including: BMJ Global Health (IF 4.280, 2019), Chinese Medicine (IF 2.960, 2019), Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy (IF 2.844, 2019), BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies (IF 2.833, 2019), International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (IF 2.772, 2019), Journal of Thoracic Disease (IF 2.170, 2019), BMJ Open (IF 2.496, 2019), Midwifery(IF 1.88, 2018), etc.
    • Founding member and Secretary-General, Pharmaceutical Society of Macao (2009 to present)
    • Founding member, Macao Society for Medicinal Administration (2019 to present)
    • Board member, Macau Pharmacology Association (2019 to present)
    • Member, Pharmaceutical Society of Australia (2002 to present)
    • Member, International Society for Chinese Medicine (2017 to present)
    • Secretary, Sino-CPLP Medical Sciences and Bioeconomy Consortium (SCMSBC) (2018 to present)
    • International Consultant, “Pharmaceutical Service Demonstration Agencies” by the China Health Promotion Foundation (2016-2019)

University/Community Service

    • Secretary General, The Academic Staff Association, University of Macau (2018 to present)
    • College Affiliate, Shiu Pong College, University of Macau (2019 to present)

Contact Details

Room 2058, N22
Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences (ICMS)
University of Macau Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau

Telephone: (853) 8822-4672
Fax: (853) 2884-1358